Spring Sale


Today is a special day, as I’ve launched our first sale of this year:

SPRING SALE

To celebrate the new season, I offer an irresistible selection of strains with a great deal: You get 10 seeds for free, when you buy 10.

I’ve selected a nice mix of Sativa and Indica seeds for this sale. So all you growers can get a great deal on your favorite seeds or you can try something new

Different types of marijuana

Different types of marijuana

Different types of marijuana

I will be talking about the differences between the Indica, Sativa and Hybrid cannabis types. They’re all marijuana but the differences are huge. Not only in appearance but also in growing needs, smell, taste, high and medicinal qualities. Here are some main differences between the three main types.
Also make sure to check the article “Different types of marijuana” to see what type you prefer!

Sativa
Perfect for growing outdoor.May help with ADD and depression. Energetic, euphoric effect. Sativa’s mostly grow very tall. An artists’ favorite because it helps free flowing creativity.
Indica
Perfect for growing indoor. Looks bushy and has wide leaves. Helps with anxiety, insomnia and pains for example. Relaxing, couch-locking effect. Mostly has a strong sweet or sour scent.
Ruderalis
Has a pretty short stature growing between 20-25 inches in height. This plant has very thick foliage. Hardly contains THC. Its genetic material is used for breeding autoflowers.

Different types of marijuana

 

My favorite strain for each type

Outdoor Mixpack
Sativa:
Super Silver Haze
For a great mind high I tend to favor this strain. And I just love seeing that thick layer of white crystals on those flowers!
Outdoor Mixpack
Indica:
Super Skunk

One of the most well-known strains in the world. This plant is really strong, perfect for beginners!

Outdoor Mixpack
Autoflower:
White Widow

White Widow has been an Amsterdam staple since the 1990’s and it’s still a classic! My love is strong for this one!

ROBERT BERGMAN LEERT JE OM MARIHUANA TE LATEN GROEIEN -OOGSTEN

ROBERT BERGMAN LEERT JE OM MARIHUANA TE LATEN GROEIEN.https://www.bergmanslab.com/?ref=24

 

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This is what fellow growers think of Bergman’s Lab

 

“First off the course is very well laid out and very informative. The topics are clear and easy to follow. The pictures are a huge help.I have some feminized white widow auto in my grow box right now under a DWC style. I will let you know how they turn out. You my friend are the real deal.” – Pete
“Your course taught me more than thousands of dollars in publications. I read all from Ed Rosenthal to George Cervantes but it felt like something was missing and you had to look between the lines. I am in the middle of a grow right now and am hoping I can salvage some of it with Bergman’s info.” – Mike

ROBERT BERGMAN LEERT JE OM MARIHUANA TE LATEN GROEIEN.

 

How to double your harvest with autoflowering plants

Have you ever wished you could grow outdoor marijuana plants more than once per year? Well, you’re in luck because you totally can!

All you have to do is grow autoflowering marijuana plants rather than photosensitive ones.

If you plant the first batch early enough in the year, then harvest them and plant a second one during the middle of the summer, you can accomplish two harvests in the span of one grow season!

That’s right, folks, that means double the harvest (in theory at least).

And as a bonus, they’re really easy to grow!

Are you excited?

Check out some of our most popular autoflowering plants:

bubblegum auto
Bubblegum
Check it out
Blueberry auto
Blueberry
Check it out
Cheese auto
Cheese

What is an autoflowering marijuana plant?

Most marijuana plants are photosensitive (or photoperiod) plants. That means that their life cycle changes are based on the changes in lighting caused by the sun. Once they start getting a certain amount of uninterrupted darkness, they will begin to enter the flowering phase. This is their way of sticking with the seasons and flowering before it gets too cold for them to survive.

It used to be that autoflowering plants were always ruderalis strains (which are low in THC). They weren’t popular with the general marijuana crowd for obvious reasons, but once they were cross-bred with indica and sativa strains (high in THC), they created the autoflowering beauties we now see today.

What’s with the hype?

There are tons of reasons why everyone is excited about autoflowering marijuana plants. They include (but are not limited to):

  • Smaller in size (my nephew has a couple in his windowsill)
  • Fast growing
  • Great resistant to pests and diseases
  • Shorter grow season (ready to harvest in 10 weeks)

Check out the way autoflowers grow!

Have you ever seen an autoflowering marijuana plant grow? It’s known for its fast growing. We got an awesome timelapse where you can see a little one come up!

What you need to know about autoflowers

The main thing to consider is the fact that no two strains of autoflowering marijuana plants are the same.

Simply ordering “autoflowering” plants is not going to cut it — you’re still going to have to do your research.

The main thing to know about autoflowers is that their lifespan is shorter. So, it’s extra important to start out strong with the grow season because there is less time to compensate for a slow start. That means you should give your seedlings a lot of love!

If your first harvest is disappointing, just remember that you have a second try! In fact, your second grow cycle may be better mid-summer because they’ll get more sun right off the bat.

Find out more about autoflowering marijuana plants here.

And be sure to get your seeds now for your second round of autoflowers this season!

Grow your plants organically and growing by the moon

 
grow cannabis

In een nieuw vensterGrow your plants organically and growing by the moon

 

 
 
 
 grow bible
 
 
 
 
 grow autoflower
 
 
 
 

Even if you’re an expert, I can still teach you some stuff!

 

Hey,

You might consider yourself an expert marijuana grower, but I guarantee I can still teach you some stuff.

Do you know how to grow your plants organically?

Or better yet, did you know you can grow your marijuana based on the phases of the moon?

Here’s a little bit on both of those things.

But first, I wanted to remind you that I have recently added NEW STRAINS to my shop!

A lot of you have been asking for more autoflowers, so here we are: OG Kush Autoflower and Jack Herer Autoflower are our newest members of the club.

Make sure you check out all new strains.

   

OG Kush Autoflower

Check it out

Jack Herer Autoflower

Check it out
 

Natural/organic growing

Tons of growers are successful at growing their marijuana plants using only organic and natural ingredients as nutrients and pesticides.

Being growers and climate-conscious seem to go hand in hand, and many of us want to lessen our carbon and chemical footprint (as well as keep the product as healthy and safe as possible).

While organic and natural growing is not exactly the same thing, it often happens that a grower will do both — intentionally or unintentionally.

Growing outside is ideal because it will lower your carbon footprint even further.

To grow marijuana organically outdoors:

  • Use natural nutrients
  • Use natural pesticides
  • Use nutrients as little as possible (for less run-off)
  • Use drip irrigation

Traditional composting is one of the best ways to get your plants everything they need. Make your own compost pile from food scraps and plant waste to create a cheap, nutrient-rich mixture that is excellent for plants.

Read more about growing naturally
 

Growing marijuana with the moon

Everyone thinks about the sun when they are growing outdoors, but it turns out that the moon is important too!

Lunar movements have tons of effects on the world around us, including our marijuana plants.

  • When the moon is waxing, for example, your plants will be developing their leave and stems.
  • When the moon is waning, your plants will use their energy more for their root systems.

This is why harvesting during a waxing moon is ideal. It is also the best time to water your plants (but be extra careful with nutrients during this time).

Germination is best done during the crescent moon phase. Marijuana takes in more nutrients during the gibbous phase due to the gravitation pull of the moon. Your plant will be taking some much-needed R & R from growing during the balsamic moon phase, making it the best time to prune, do some weeding, and prep for the next stage.

Read more about growing with the moon
 flag USA

Take care of your plants, and they’ll take of you. That is, of course, if you start out with great seeds.

Visit my shop to find your perfect strain.

 

Happy growing,

 
Robert

Robert Bergman

 
ilovegrowingmarijuana.com
 

PS. If you haven’t already, be sure to check out the new mixpacks. Great seed combination with a hefty discount!

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

How Much Marijuana Can I Yield Per Plant? A Pound!

Marijuana A pound per plant

One of the most popular questions regarding marijuana is “How much marijuana can one plant produce?” or “How much will a 600 watt HPS yield?” There are no simple answers to this question as each situation depends on a number of variables.

Many people take up growing weed and they have a variety of reasons for doing so. In every case, you want to get the most out of your crop. Whether you’re growing for medical reasons or you just want to make a little money on the side, the overall yield is a top priority for all growers.

In this article I will discuss all everything there is to know about marijuana yields. Got questions or tips? Place them in the comments below this article.

Don’t want to read? Watch the video!

Maximum yield per plant indoors

Lights are of the utmost importance when you’re growing indoors. Experienced growers can produce about a gram of marijuana per watt of light (1 gram = 0,035 oz). So, a 400-watt HPS grow light can potentially translate to 400 grams or 14 oz of dried, usable cannabis.

HPS grow light

600watt HPS grow light with reflector

Likewise, a grow room with 1200 watts of light can yield 1.2 kilograms or 42 oz of cannabis. Having the right equipment, adequate nutrient solutions, beneficial air quality, and other valuable factors is important for producing the highest yields possible. Making sure the plants have space to grow is also key.

Tip: make sure to download my free Grow Bible and learn how to maximize your yield

Average expected yield per plant indoor from soil

If you are using soil to grow indoors, you can expect somewhat less of a yield than if you’d grown hydroponically. This is because hydro growers can fully control the amount of nutrients their plants receive.

Check out these pics below. You can see that hydro plants grow faster than soil plants
Pictures powered by:Bergmanslab.com

Although soil growing can potentially lower your yield, it also is easier to grow. This is because it not only creates a buffer for error but it also holds nutrients within the soil. When growing in soil, there is room to make mistakes with pH and TDS and pay for it in yield. In terms of numbers, expect a maximum of 1 gram per watt. That means a 600watt lamp can produce 600 grams of marijuana or 21 ounces.

Average expected yield per plant indoor from hydro

Growing hydroponically yields up to 20% more, as long as you do not make any mistakes. With hydro growing, there is no room for errors. You must be very careful about the TDS and pH levels because the roots are directly in water (and not soil) and incorrect levels can immediately effect the plants.

Check out these pics below. You can see that hydro roots grow faster than soil roots
Pictures powered by:Bergmanslab.com

There are rarely small mistakes while growing hydroponically. Even the most minor error can ruin your yield. However, those who do it correctly will be rewarded. You can expect up to 1.2 gram per watt, which means a 600watt HPS lamp can give you 720 grams of marijuana or over 25 ounces.

Cannabis plant yield calculator

A simple way to calculate your yield is by using a cannabis plant yield calculator. Yield O Rama has an excellent one that lets you select the type of light you’re using, the light intensity (lumen), your level of growing experience and your growing medium.

Marijuana yield calculator

Results from input cannabis plant yield calculator. Try the calculator yourself at this link

When using the yield calculator, keep in mind that an HPS grow light produces around 150 lumens per watt. For the exact amount of lumen that your bulb produces, check with the manufacturer.

The calculator has a few limitations- you cannot adjust it for the strain, and it’s only for indoor grows, but it is still quite handy. Check out the cannabis yield calculator here.

Marijuana yields in imperial measurements

  • An average of around 1.5 to 2.0 oz  (3.5 oz for advanced growers) with 200-watt CFL lamps in a grow cabinet that measures 3.5 x 1.5 x 6.5 ft.
  • An average of around 3.0 to 5.0 oz  (9.0 oz for advanced growers) with a 250-watt HPS lamp in a grow cabinet that measures 3.5 x 1.5 x 6.5 ft.
  • An average of around 4.5 to 9.0 oz (14 oz for advanced growers) with a 400-watt HPS lamp in a grow room that measures 3.5 x 3.5 x 7 ft.
  • An average of around 5.0 to 10 oz (21 for advanced growers) with a 600-watt HPS lamp in a grow room that measures 4 x 4 x 8 ft.
  • An average of around 9.0 to 18 oz (36 for advanced growers) with a 1000-watt HPS lamp in a grow room that measures 5 x 5 x 8 ft.

hps lamps distance yield

Different HPS lamps with distance for best yield

 

Marijuana yields in metric measurements

  • An average of around 40 to 60 grams  (100 for advanced growers) with 200-watt CFL lamps in a grow cabinet that measures 1 x 0.5 x 2 m
  • An average of around 80 to 150 grams (250 for advanced growers) with a 250-watt HPS lamp in a grow cabinet that measures 1 x 0.5 x 2 m
  • An average of around 100 to 250 grams (400 for advanced growers) with a 400-watt HPS lamp in a grow room that measures 1 x 1 x 2.5 m,
  • An average of around 150 to 300 grams (600 for advanced growers) with a 600-watt HPS lamp in a grow room that measures 1.2 x 1.2 x 2.5 m.
  • An average of around 250 to 500 grams (1000 for advanced growers) with a 1000-watt HPS lamp in a grow room that measures 1.5 x 1.5 x 2.5 m.

Grow place with proper metric measurements

Grow room with 1 x 600 watt HPS and Adjust a Wing reflector

How much does one marijuana plant produce

Indoor growth doesn’t bring with it a lot of certainty in terms of yield per plant. If you have only four plants per lamp, then you’ll yield much more than you would with total of sixteen plants for every lamp.

Tip: make sure to download my free Grow Bible  for more information about setting up your grow room

You should consider these things prior to choosing how many plants you want to grow:

  • If you’ve only got 4 plants, your yield will be 25% less if one gets a disease or dies

 

splitting the stem of your marijuna plant?

splitting the stem of your marijuna plant

splitting the stem

Not many people know about this trick, but I’m sharing it with you today. Have you ever heard of splitting the stem of your plant?

No? Well, did you know this will force your plants to create heavier and denser buds? And it also increases THC production up to 20%!

Don’t hesitate and order your seeds to try out this trick with your plants as well!

split marijuana

The purpose of stem splitting is to disturb the flow of nutrients and water right at the base of the stem.

This will cause the plant to start producing more trichomes which means heavier and denser buds with higher THC levels.

Make sure to read my article How to split the stem to increase THC levels in my FREE Marijuana Grow bible after I tell you how to do this in 3 easy steps.

How to split the stem in 3 easy steps:

Step 1 Tie the stem with a rope or cable tie right at the base. Tie a second rope or cable tie a couple inches above that.

Step 2 Take a very sharp knife and cut from the top tie to the bottom tie. There should be one vertical cut that is a few inches in length.

Step 3 The knife should remain inside until you have a pencil or chopsticks to replace it with. This is to keep both sides of the marijuana plant from touching each other.

Check out this picture gallery and learnHow to split the stem.

Splitting the stem causes stress on the plant and forces it to create more trichomes.

Trichomes serve as protectors of the marijuana plants. Specifically against pests, diseases, low temperatures and wind.

Because of this protective feature, more trichomes are produced during times of stress. Take advantage of this special feature and read about splitting the stem and many more secret tricks to grow huge buds and increase your yield.

Tip 1: Apply this technique 3 days or a week before harvest, not sooner!

Tip 2: Try it on only 1 of your plants until you’ve mastered the technique

Tip 3: Ever extended the dark period to 48 hours right before harvest? Read more here

Want to gain more skills? Check out my growing course

For only $7, you get access to 9 ESSENTIAL grow skills.

You will learn everything about pruning, fimming, topping, harvesting, trimming, transplanting, super cropping and drying.

You can also take a look at the monthly subscription.!

 

 

http://bit.ly/29DEn2D

Een schoon en veilig cannabis-extract maken

Een schoon en veilig cannabis-extract maken

STEVEN CASSINI – LACASSINI RESEARCH
Steven Cassini is onderzoeker en oprichter van LaCassini Research, een geregistreerd laboratorium gespecialiseerd in biotechnologie. Daarnaast is Steven oprichter van Qannabis.nl, een online analyse-platform waar men cannabisproducten op inhoudsstoffen kan laten analyseren. In zijn eerste bijdrage op Mediwietsite gaat hij uitgebreid in op de meest veilige en beste manier om een cannabis-extract te maken.

Een schoon en veilig cannabis-extract maken

Extract maken
Het internet staat vol tips over het gebruik van diverse vloeistoffen voor het maken van een cannabisextract. Maar welke vloeistof kun je nou het beste gebruiken? En welke vloeistof is veilig in gebruik? Op deze vrij simpele vragen is opmerkelijk genoeg een deskundig antwoord niet zo snel te vinden. In dit artikel gaan we uitgebreid aandacht besteden aan de effectiviteit en de veiligheid voor het gebruik van diverse vloeistoffen om een cannabis-extract te maken.

Een cannabisextract of concentraat wordt verkregen door plantmateriaal op te lossen in een oplosmiddel waarna het oplosmiddel wordt ingedampt zodat er een extract rijk aan cannabinoïden (de werkzame stoffen in cannabis) overblijft.

Oplosmiddelen
Allereerst beginnen we bij de basis en geldt zoals bij het maken van elk plantextract dat je moet weten welke bestanddelen je uit het plantmateriaal wilt extraheren. Alle planten (dus ook cannabis) bevatten zowel lipofiele (vetoplosbare) bestanddelen als hydrofiele (wateroplosbare) bestanddelen.

De polariteit van een vloeistof bepaalt hoe goed een bestanddeel zal oplossen. De polariteit van een vloeistof wordt bepaald door meerdere factoren zoals de temperatuur, pH en het aantal positieve (+) of negatieve (-) molecuul-verbindingen. Polaire vloeistoffen zoals water mengen niet met apolaire (anti-polaire) vloeistoffen zoals olie of koolwaterstoffen zoals Petroleum Ether. Om deze reden kun je olie dus ook niet mengen met water want olie is apolair (anti-polair) en mengt niet met water (polair).

Lipofiel en hydrofiel
Lipo is de Griekse betekenis voor ‘vet’ en fiel betekend ‘liefhebbend’. Een lipofiel bestanddeel houd dus van vet en zal dan ook alleen oplossen in apolaire vloeistoffen zoals olie. Hydro is de Griekse betekenis voor ‘water’. Het spreekt voor zich dat een hydrofiel bestanddeel dus alleen zal oplossen in polaire vloeistoffen zoals water.

Polariteit van een oplosmiddel
Water is polair en koolwaterstoffen zoals Petroleum Ether, Butaan, Chloroform en Hexaan zijn apolair. Het is van groot belang om te weten dat cannabinoïden alleen goed oplossen in apolaire oplosmiddelen. Bij het maken van een cannabis-extract wil je namelijk zoveel mogelijk cannabinoïden extraheren. Cannabinoïden zijn lipofiel (vet liefhebbend). Hoe minder polair het oplosmiddel is des te sneller en beter de cannabinoïden zullen oplossen.

Om overzichtelijk te maken welke oplosmiddelen van apolair naar polair lopen heb ik een handige polariteitsindex gemaakt. Met behulp van de onderstaande polariteitsindex kun je zien welke vloeistoffen meer of minder polair zijn.
polariteit

Zoals je kunt zien staat water helemaal onderaan en Butaan helemaal bovenaan. Dit betekent dat water het meest polair is en Butaan het minst. Hoe minder polair het oplosmiddel is des te beter de cannabinoïden zullen oplossen.

Beste oplosmiddel
Nu dat we weten dat lipofiele bestanddelen zoals cannabinoïden alleen goed oplossen in apolaire vloeistoffen kunnen we aan de hand van de polariteitsindex een keuze maken uit een aantal oplosmiddelen. Om het juiste oplosmiddel te kiezen dien je rekening te houden met een aantal belangrijke factoren zoals de kwaliteit, de veiligheid en het kookpunt van van het oplosmiddel. Het feit dat een bepaald oplosmiddel ideaal is om de cannabinoïden in op te lossen zegt natuurlijk niets over de veiligheid en de kwaliteit van het betreffende oplosmiddel.

Bij het maken van een cannabis-extract met een oplosmiddel staat veiligheid altijd voorop. Het wil niet zeggen dat het oplosmiddel waar de cannabinoïden het beste in oplossen ook daadwerkelijk veilig kan worden gebruikt. Het is daarom van groot belang om de veiligheidsaspecten zoals het kookpunt en de toxicologische (giftige) eigenschappen van het oplosmiddel goed te bestuderen. Deze informatie staat altijd in het veiligheidsblad (MSDS) van de fabrikant en kun je via Google raadplegen als je zoekt op de naam van het oplosmiddel en daarachter MSDS typt. Bijvoorbeeld: isopropanol MSDS

Kookpunt
Nu dat we een overzicht hebben met apolaire oplosmiddelen moeten we kijken naar het kookpunt van het oplosmiddel. Ook hierbij moet er worden gekeken naar de eigenschappen van de cannabinoïden. Als de cannabinoïde-zuren zoals THC-A en CBD-A behouden moeten blijven dan is het van belang om een oplosmiddel te kiezen met een zo laag mogelijk kookpunt om decarboxylatie van de cannabinoïden te voorkomen.

Een oplosmiddel met een lager kookpunt brengt meestal grotere risico’s met zich mee omdat de gassen tijdens het indampen en het oplosmiddel zelf zeer licht ontvlambaar zijn en daarom niet geschikt om thuis mee te experimenteren.

Selectieve oplosmiddelen
De oplosmiddelen die bovenaan de polariteitsindex staan zoals Butaan, Hexaan en Pentaan zijn het meest apolair en extraheren alleen de cannabinoïden, lipofiele terpenen en de waxen. Deze oplosmiddelen geven een mooi goudkleurig concentraat zonder dat het de polaire bestanddelen zoals chlorofyl (bladgroen) uit het plantmateriaal oplost. Met een selectief apolair oplosmiddel kun je een cannabis-extract maken met een cannabinoïde percentage van 70 – 85%.

Minder selectieve oplosmiddelen
Hoe minder apolair het oplosmiddel des te meer andere bestanddelen er zullen oplossen. Ethanol en isopropanol (IPA) hebben de eigenschap om zowel lipofiele als hydrofiele bestanddelen op te lossen waardoor er dus meer plant-bestanddelen in het extract terecht komen. Hoe langer het plantmateriaal in contact blijft met het oplosmiddel des te meer andere bestanddelen er uit het plantmateriaal worden getrokken. Een extract dat voor langere tijd in ethanol of isopropanol is getrokken heeft een gemiddeld percentage van 30 tot 45 procent.

Omdat cannabinoïden zich in de trichomen bevinden en niet in het blad is het niet nodig om het plantmateriaal uren, dagen of zoals sommigen doen, wekenlang in een pot te laten staan in de hoop dat er dan meer cannabinoïden oplossen. De trichomen bevinden zich op het blad, met name in de toppen.

Oplossen werkzame stoffen
Het afspoelen van de trichomen kan eenvoudig door het plantmateriaal in een pot met ethanol of isopropanol gedurende een korte periode (1-3 minuten) krachtig te schudden en vervolgens te filteren. Hiermee voorkom je dat er teveel ongewenste plantbestanddelen zoals bijvoorbeeld bladgroen mee komt waar het extract een bittere smaak van kan krijgen.

Om de trichomen van het plantmateriaal te spoelen zijn er diverse producten op de markt te verkrijgen zoals de Cannolator van Wernard Bruining of de HPE (High Pressure Extraction) kit van LaCassini Research. Met het afspoelen van de cannabinoïden, zonder het plantmateriaal lange tijd te laten weken in het oplosmiddel kun je met ethanol of isopropanol een gemiddeld percentage behalen van 50 – 65%.

Hoe langer het plantmateriaal in contact blijft met het oplosmiddel des te meer andere bestanddelen er zullen oplossen waardoor het uiteindelijke percentage aan cannabinoïden in het extract minder zal zijn. Het extraheren werkt beter als het plantmateriaal enkele uren in de vriezer heeft gelegen. De trichomen zullen zich dan sneller scheiden van het plantmateriaal en beter oplossen in het oplosmiddel.

Veiligheid en omgeving
De omgeving waar de extractie plaatsvindt en de apparatuur die voor het extraheren gebruikt wordt speelt een grote rol bij de algehele veiligheid. Met de juiste apparatuur kan in een laboratorium-omgeving prima gebruik worden gemaakt van zeer vluchtige en brandbare oplosmiddelen terwijl het gebruik van dezelfde oplosmiddelen in een huis-, tuin- en keuken omgeving levensgevaarlijk kan zijn. Veiligheid hangt dus niet alleen af van de eigenschappen van het oplosmiddel, maar ook van de omgeving waar het extractieproces plaatsvindt en de kennis en zorgvuldigheid van degene die de extractie uitvoert.

Kwaliteit van het oplosmiddel
Er circuleren veel verhalen op het internet over Petroleum Ether en isopropanol (IPA) alcohol en of deze wel of geen residu achterlaten. Onder de term residu wordt verstaan de reststoffen die achterblijven na het volledig indampen van het oplosmiddel.

Of er wel of geen reststoffen (residu) achterblijven heeft alles te maken met de kwaliteit van het oplosmiddel. Een HPLC-grade (hoge kwaliteit) Petroleum Ether of isopropanol (IPA) zal bij volledige indamping absoluut geen andere reststoffen (residu) achterlaten. HPLC is een analyse-methode en de oplosmiddelen die daarbij worden gebruikt in het lab zijn zeer zuiver en bevatten geen kleine hoeveelheden aan reststoffen.

Echter is het gebruik van oplosmiddelen die niet HPLC-grade zijn niet geschikt om te gebruiken voor het maken van een cannabis-extract. Ook als er op de verpakking staat dat het 99,9999% isopropanol betreft is deze niet geschikt. Dit komt omdat de isopropanol is verwerkt en afgevuld in een fabriek waar dezelfde machines worden gebruikt voor het verwerken en afvullen van andere (giftige) chemicaliën.

Niet elk oplosmiddel is veilig om te gebruiken in een huis-, tuin- en keuken-omgeving. [Foto: shutterstock/Tobias Wilcke]
Wat betreft de toepassingen waarvoor de fabrikant de oplosmiddelen maakt (zoals de schoonmaak- of de brandstofindustrie) zijn deze reststoffen geen probleem. De fabrikant is dus wettelijk gezien niet verplicht om deze reststoffen op de verpakking te vermelden. Indien er reststoffen van chemicaliën inzitten met een kookpunt die hoger ligt dan dat van je oplosmiddel dan zal dit terecht komen in je eindproduct.
Dit kan gezondheidsproblemen veroorzaken, want hoewel het op 1 liter slechts een kleine hoeveelheid residu betreft, wordt de hoeveelheid geconcentreerd naar mate je het oplosmiddel gaat indampen. Als er op 1 liter isopropanol 0,1% residu aanwezig is dan kan er na het indampen 1mL aan gevaarlijke reststoffen overblijven in je extract. Bij 1 mL reststof op 5 tot 10 mL cannabisextract is het geen ‘residu’ meer maar een zwaar vervuild extract dat niet geschikt is voor consumptie.

Residu van het oplosmiddel zelf
Ook met een zuiver oplosmiddel kunnen – vooral bij de oplosmiddelen bovenaan in de polariteitsindex – restanten van het oplosmiddel zelf achterblijven in het extract. Het oplosmiddel kan namelijk ingekapseld raken in de hars omdat tijdens het indampen van het laatste beetje oplosmiddel grote en kleine (microscopische) gasbelletjes ontstaan die uiteindelijk zullen uitharden waardoor het oplosmiddel binnen in de gasbelletjes niet weg kan. Deze restanten kan men alleen verwijderen onder vacuüm, bijvoorbeeld met behulp van een vacuümoven.

Gedenatureerde Ethanol
Gedenatureerde Ethanol is ongeschikt gemaakt voor consumptie door andere (giftige) stoffen toe te voegen. Zo kan deze Ethanol worden gebruikt voor bijvoorbeeld industriële toepassingen of de schoonmaak, zonder dat daar overheidshalve accijns over betaald hoeft te worden. De meeste stoffen die worden toegevoegd liggen rond hetzelfde kookpunt als Ethanol en vormen een azeotroop mengsel zodat het middels destillatie niet eenvoudig te scheiden is.

Sommige mensen gebruiken gedenatureerde Ethanol om een extract te maken. De meeste varianten van gedenatureerde Ethanol op de markt zijn niet geschikt om een extract mee te maken en zullen zeker residu achterlaten in je eindproduct. Indien de Ethanol (kookpunt 79 °C) enkel is gedenatureerd met een kleine hoeveelheid oplosmiddel zoals Methanol (kookpunt 65 °C) en van zuivere kwaliteit is dan kan deze wel worden gebruikt om een extract mee te maken. De Methanol zal gezien het lagere kookpunt namelijk eerder verdampen dan de Ethanol. De Ethanol, bijvoorbeeld op nacuro.com, is door de toevoeging van Methanol niet geschikt voor consumptie, maar wel geschikt om een extract mee te maken.

Ethanol (consumptie alcohol 96%)
Als we alles op een rijtje zetten kunnen we stellen dat van alle oplosmiddelen Ethanol (consumptie alcohol) voor de huis- tuin en keuken methode – toxicologisch – het veiligste is, maar technisch gezien niet het meest effectieve oplosmiddel om cannabinoïden te extraheren. Het grote voordeel bij het gebruik van alcohol is dat het ook niet erg is als er restanten achterblijven in het extract, iets dat je met de andere oplosmiddelen absoluut niet wilt hebben.

Daarnaast geldt ook voor alcohol (96%) dat het een vluchtige en licht-ontvlambare vloeistof betreft waardoor het gevaarlijk kan zijn om deze (vooral in grote hoeveelheden) binnenshuis te verdampen. Een ander groot nadeel is dat de Ethanol (96%) geschikt voor consumptie erg aan de prijs is waardoor het maken van een extract, zonder terugwinning, mogelijk niet kostenefficiënt is. De website drank.nl is in vergelijking met andere Nederlandse aanbieders relatief goedkoop met haar Navimer Pure Ethanol (96%). Echter zal het in de omringende landen waar de accijns lager liggen wellicht nog goedkoper kunnen.

Infuseren
Wil je veilig wietolie maken zonder vluchtige oplosmiddelen? Dan kun je de cannabinoïden infuseren in een apolaire (vetachtige) vloeistof zoals olijfolie, kokosolie of een andere gewenste basisolie. Infuseren is het laten trekken van bestanddelen in een vloeistof zoals het maken van een kopje thee. Door de olie te verwarmen en gedurende tijd telkens nieuw plantmateriaal toe te voegen zal de olie steeds sterker worden waarbij je dit proces kunt herhalen tot je de gewenste sterkte hebt bereikt.

Advies van Bedrocan
In de gebruiksaanwijzing van de medicinale cannabis afkomstig van Bedrocan (welke op doktersrecept aan patiënten wordt geleverd) staat opmerkelijk genoeg het volgende advies beschreven:

Bedrocan stelt dat het infuseren van cannabis in water, door er thee van te trekken, de meest geschikte manier is. Op de polariteitsindex staat water helemaal onderaan en weten we nu dus dat water polair is en daarom – in tegenstelling tot wat Bedrocan beweert – het minst geschikt is om cannabinoïden in op te lossen.

Een betere toepassing voor deze ‘thee’ zou zijn het bereiden op basis van warme melk waardoor de cannabinoïden – in tegenstelling tot water – beter zullen oplossen.

Tot slot
Indien je olijfolie gaat gebruiken om te infuseren of om je extract mee te verdunnen gebruik dan altijd een olie die écht koud geperst is. De meeste soorten olijfolie op de markt worden namelijk op industriële wijze geproduceerd door de olie uit de olijven te extraheren met behulp van Hexaan waarbij je – ondanks dat je denkt goed bezig te zijn – alsnog een eindproduct hebt met Hexaan residu.

 

Over Steven Cassini – LaCassini Research
Steven Cassini is onderzoeker en oprichter van LaCassini Research, een geregistreerd laboratorium gespecialiseerd in biotechnologie. Daarnaast is Steven oprichter van Qannabis.nl, een online analyse platform waar cannabis-producten op inhoudsstoffen worden geanalyseerd. Steven schrijft wetenschappelijke en innovatieve artikelen over de nieuwste wetenschappelijke ontwikkelingen in de wereld van medicinale cannabis.

What is the best grow light?

What is the best grow light?

For indoor growers, you will need to choose a specific type of light. Growers use CFLs, LEDs, MH lamps, HPS lights, and more.

CFLs are most commonly used by beginners since they are so inexpensive. If this is your first time, it might be a good choice.

LED lights are higher in power and higher in cost (significantly) but they require less electricity than MH or CPS. The latter cost less than LED upon purchase and highly powerful but require quite some more electricity. If you have a small grow setup, however, CFLs are likely the simplest choice for you.

If you feel like splurging on the very best, go for a smaller MH/HPS grow light instead.

Which growing medium to choose

Most beginner growers start with soil, since it is the easiest option out there for the inexperienced among us. If you want to try something besides soil, you can choose between perlite, coco coir, vermiculite, and more.

These are considered soilless mixes, which are a type of hydroponic growing, technically speaking. Hydroponics involves growing your marijuana plants directly in water, which can be a complicated system but a highly fruitful and rewarding one — it is said that the highest yields are achieved in hydroponics systems.

Of course, you can also go the organic growing route: composting your own soil. It takes more work but leads to great taste and yield results, plus it makes for a very wise choice for the environmentally minded.

 Free Marijuana Grow Bible


What Do Marijuana Plants Need

Marijuana plants will need to survive so like every plant, there are certain foundational requirements that any strain of Whether your setup is indoors or outdoors, your marijuana plants will still require certain amounts of sunlight, water, and nutrients

what-do-marijuana-plants-need
what-do-marijuana-plants-need

Marijuana plants will need to survive so like every plant, there are certain foundational requirements that any strain of  Whether your setup is indoors or outdoors, your marijuana plants will still require certain amounts of sunlight, water, and nutrients.If you are a new grower, learning what these requirements are and why they exist is essential. If you are an experienced grower, you will probably find it helpful to refresh your memory about why your plants reacted a certain way during your last growing season.

So what are the basic requirements for growing Cannabis, and how do you make sure they are all met? Read on for the following information:

 

Water – Light – CO2

Essential requirements indoor weed

Cannabis is a remarkably tenacious and swift-growing plant. In fact, it’s been said that if you sit long enough with a plant, just watching, you can actually see it grow with your own eyes. No time-lapse, no video, no YouTube.

However, even though the plant is so independently energetic, there’s a lot of growers and cultivators can do on their own to help aid all of that growth, fostering and nurturing these natural qualities. Making the environment around the plant as hospitable as possible and providing the best possible nourishment will maximize the potential of cultivated cannabis.

All living things have basic requirements for life, and thankfully plants are fairly simple in the things they require. Cannabis is no exception. To make sure your plant can live and thrive in its environment, you need to make sure you are providing proper lighting, enough water, a mild and stable temperature, and a well-sifted substrate for the plant to take root in. Beyond that, you need to make sure you are providing nutrients: hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon, as well as a whole host of other macro- and micro- nutrients.

Download my free marijuana grow guide at this link for more growing tips

If you are missing any of these key ingredients, you will be cheating your plants (and yourself!). In addition to making sure they’re provided, you also need to be sure that you are providing all of these things in the proper proportions.

The development of your plant is based on the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is how your plant absorbs light and turns carbon dioxide into sugar (energy). This is possible because of the green pigment chlorophyll. The glucose sugars work in conjunction with mineral salts, nutrients, and water pulled up by the roots and allow the plant to perform a variety of different chemical reactions to produce raw materials and develop.

In nature, all of these things are controlled and provided by the environment. Your job as a cultivator and gardener is to imitate and mimic all of these essentials to create the ideal environment for your plant. Done properly, you can create the perfect living situation for your cannabis plant.

The perfect environment

Perfect environment indoor cannabsi

First, if you’re growing indoors, you’re going to need a good source of light. You can’t just use your old living room lamp to replace the life-giving light of the sun. If you’re an indoor grower, consider using a HPS. This will give you a more accurate spectrum of light, which is very important for plants.

Next you need to consider your air. Your plant needs a supply of carbon dioxide and oxygen in order for photosynthesis to work. Fortunately for you, these gasses are already present in our air! However, you will need to make sure that the environment you’re growing your plant in is very well-ventilated. Indoors, you’ll want to invest in some input and output ventilators, as well as a fan.

You want to make sure you are getting a supply of fresh air to your plants at all times. Just like any other living thing, they’ll suffocate without air (although the suffocation will occur a little differently). In particular, low carbon dioxide levels will inhibit the photosynthesis process, and a lot of growers actually add extra CO2 to the air.

If you install all of your ventilation and air flow equipment properly, it will also be significantly easier for you to manage the humidity and temperature of the environment in your grow room. Keep a weather eye on the temperature and humidity: you’ll want a high humidity (50-70%). Air in the room should be between 68 and 77 degrees Fahrenheit (20 and 25 Celsius) while the substrate should be close to 64 degrees fahrenheit (24 celsius). If you are using a hydroponics system or growing your plants in water, you’ll want the water to be a lukewarm 68 degrees fahrenheit (20 degrees Celsius). Read more about Temperature and Humidity.

Download my free marijuana grow guide at this link for more growing tips

Water is also extremely important to the health of your plant. This means both the humidity of the surrounding environment, and the soil from which the roots will be drawing water to distribute nutrients to the rest of the plant. You have a number of choices for different substrates to grow your plants in (soil, rockwool, etc.) but you’ll want to make sure it’s getting water regardless.

Besides using water in a number of key chemical reactions, your plant will be using water as a vehicle to transport nutrients. If you’re an indoor marijuana grower, you’ll either need to be watering manually or invest in an automatic system to take care of the irrigation for you. Indoor plants especially are likely to require a lot of water, since you’ll probably be maxing them out with lights and nutrients to get the highest quality plant possible. Another note on water: you need to make sure you are using pure water. If the water you’re using has anything toxic or harmful, it could damage your plants, or worse yet, hurt any people who want to use the plant for medicinal purposes!

The substrate is important because it sort of acts as a trap for nutrients and important elements. For example, if you are using soil, you need to make sure that it is well aerated. Good circulation among the roots is very important since that is where your plant will be picking up a lot of things to absorb. Roots need oxygen, regardless of the substrate you use, whether you are using traditional soil or newfangled hydroponics equipment. Plus, proper aerification will minimize the risks of disease, mold and fungus on your marijuana plant.

Feeding your marijuana plants

Feeding indoor cannabis

Next up, you need to be sure you have plenty of nutrients. There are a lot of ways for you to add nutrients to the soil. You can either do it gradually with fertilizers and other additives in the soil itself or add the nutrients directly into the water, which will make your nutrient delivery faster and more accurate.

Essential nutrients for plants are split up into macro- and micro-nutrients, based on how much of the specific nutrient the plant requires to meet its nutritional needs. Macronutrients is a term used by growers to describe the nutrients that cannabis plants need the most. This list includes phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and sulfur. Micronutrients refer to the remaining nutrients that are necessary for a plant to thrive, but those that only occur in small amounts, especially when compare to the macronutrients. Micronutrients include zinc, copper, iron, boron, manganese, and molybdenum. A good option is the Marijuana Booster. A great product composed of the exact right mix of nutrients to help the plant thrive and double your yield.

You’ll want to measure the pH of your plant substrate, making sure that it falls somewhere between 5.5 and 6.5.  This is very important for the speed and efficiency at which different nutrients are absorbed by the plant.

How To Make Marijuana Clones

how-to-make-marijuana-clones-36051-w800

The knowledge and ability to make marijuana clones is an added bonus for any successful grower – as well as growers of any type of plant. Cloning is a reliable way to have a better harvest and yield without risking certain important factors such as potency. As long as you know which of your plants are the healthiest and most successful, as well as which are males and females, you will be able to clone correctly. If you don’t know these things at this stage in the growing season, you may want to take up a new hobby.

You might even have a specific favorite plant already, which will make the decision process quite easy when it comes to cloning. Cloning is about as close to a guarantee as you can get in the marijuana growing business, so proceed with confidence because it has a very high success rate.

This article will help you successfully clone any plant that you want. We will cover the various methods for cloning and transplanting, as well as more advanced techniques and options that you as the “cloner” can look further into if you are interested. Keep reading and learn to clone like a pro!

What is cloning

What is cloning weed plants

Cloning marijuana plants itself is actually just using the clipping of one of your plants and moving it elsewhere to begin growing by itself. It’s as simple as that!

While the theory is extremely simple, the actual practice isn’t foolproof for some people. For outdoor growers, cloning is the most successful when it’s done in a region with a long growing season. Even with a very long growing season, you can’t expect your clones to reach their full height potential. This is unlikely since they will only start growing about 3 months into the growing season when your original plant is mature. That being said, even short clones can end up with a superb yield, sometimes having a top full of buds.

Most cloners prefer to take the bottom branches from their plants since those branches would receive less light and struggle for survival anyway. If you take between two and four of each of your plant’s bottom branches to make clones, you have at least doubled your harvest. Do you understand now why cloning is such a popular practice?

Although cloning is relatively risk-free since it does not risk the health of the original plant and your main harvest, clones often die before they are even able to root. It is not uncommon for just one out of ten clones to survive, so don’t be discouraged when most of them die.

Select a mother plant

Select a mother plant make cannabis clones

Don’t be hasty when you are trying to decide which of your plants to clone from. You need a plant that is hardy, growing rapidly, with great yields, large roots, and strong buds. When taking cuttings to clone your plants, you should make sure that your plant is in a vegetative state. If you take them during the flowering stage, then it will become much more difficult for your plant to take root, thus making your clones’ mortality rate will be higher.

If this is your first time cloning, then you may not actually know your plants well enough or have enough experience to know which ones are the best to choose. Regardless, if you choose a female that is in its vegetative state that appears relatively healthy, then you are probably choosing one that will work fine for cloning.

Download my free marijuana grow guide at this link for more cloning tips

At the absolute minimum, your chosen plant needs to be two months old. In fact, it should have been in the vegetative state for two or three months already. If you wait this long to remove branches for cloning, then you should be able to get many clones from the one plant.

Once you decide on a plant, be sure to prepare it properly. It should receive ten percent less nitrogen than normal starting a week or two before you clip its branches. This will help its clones have a higher chance of successful rooting after you have clipped them off.

Cloning Techniques

Cloning techniques weed

When you cut the branches from your plants, make sure you end up with 6 to 8 inches of each branch. Also be sure to leave at least one pair of leaves on the branch so that two new branches can sprout. Remember to cut out branches from the bottom, since they aren’t as productive as branches higher up on the plant anyway. This will promote faster rooting in the clone. That being said, you also might want to consider cutting from the top if you want the resulting plant to flower more quickly.

You will need a knife that is quite sharp (to avoid any ripping during the cutting process). Make sure you always cut diagonally, since this will maximize the surface area from which roots will hopefully sprout. Buy cloning gear like knifes, rooting gel and rock wool cubes at this link

Rock wool method. All you have to do is trim healthy cuttings from healthy plants. Make sure to clip off most of the leaves, but leave the top ones intact. Dip each cutting in rooting gel or powder and then place it in a rock wool cube under a CFL light. The ideal temperature is around 72-75*F (22-24*C). The roots should start showing up in 8-12 days. Make sure to soak the rock wool cubes in pH 5.5 water for a few hours.

The Potting Soil Method. Because you will want the cutting to use all of its resources and energy for sprouting roots, take away any mature leaves that are on the stalk. Then wet the sliced bottom of the stalk and dip it into rooting gel or powder. Right after that, stick the plant into the saturated potting soil under cfl lights, where it should remain while roots are forming.

The Water Method. You should also remove the mature leaves from the cutting with this method. After that,  get a container of some sort (a plastic bottle of about 16 ounces is best, since it has a narrow neck that will be helpful in holding the plant up) and fill it with water that has been treated with plant food. Submerge the stalks of your plants into this water and leave them there, mixing things up every couple days to make sure algae doesn’t grow too much. If you do discover an algae problem, you can change the water.

Keep sunlight indirect or less intense than normal until new leaves are growing at the top. This new leaf growth usually happens at the same time as root growth. You should soon have a nice ball of roots as a sign that it’s time for a transplant.

Transplanting clones

Transplanting cannabis clones

Since you probably have already transplanted your seedlings during this growing season, you will already have the knowledge for transplanting your clones that have rooted in soil.

Clones that were rooted through the water method, on the other hand, will require a new technique. First, dig a hole that is one foot deep and one foot wide. You will then need to move the actual container that is holding the rooted plant and its water all the way to the site where you will transplant it. It is crucial that you do not expose the roots to the air, so despite the inconvenience this is an important part of the transplanting process.

Put the plant in the hole and fill the rest of the hole with potting soil mixed with dirt that was dug up. Pat down the soil firmly but gently, then water the entire area with a half gallon or more of water mixed with plant food.

In general, clones that have already taken root have a very high chance of survival. This is simply because the original plant they were a part of were already mature and strong, meaning that a clone with roots is no different. It should begin the flowering stage within two or three months. Take note, however: sometimes the clone ends up being a different sex than your original plant, so don’t be shocked if it happens. Read the article When and how to transplant marijuana plantsfor more info

Caring for your clones

Caring for cannabis clones

You should keep your Marijuana clones’ grow room temperature a bit warmer than standard room temperature, so between 72 and 77 degrees Fahrenheit. Since cuttings don’t have roots yet, watering the soil around them will not do any good. Instead, spray them with water several times a day so they can absorb the water through their leaves. You may also want to consider spraying a mild nutrient solution as well. Make sure it’s also hitting the leaves since they will also absorb the nutrients through their leaves as well.

If you invest in a mechanized cloner, you won’t have to worry about monitoring the moisture or temperature. The cloner will do it for you, thus (more or less) automating the entire thing.

Some growers make the decision to not use any lights at all for a day or two while the clones are adjusting to their new surroundings. Others start with a bright light and then use a dimmer grow light after a couple days. For roots to form, you should also ensure that there is at least some darkness each day. Try 18 hours of light and 6 hours of darkness.

When you are using powder or gel that is designed for rooting, ensure that it has been stored properly. It, like many products, needs to be stored in a cool, dry place. If there’s any chance that it has been contaminated, definitely do not use it under any circumstances. Whether the packaging wasn’t sealed properly or anything fell into it, even natural materials like leaves or dirt, it could have a negative effect on your plants.

In general, the most effective way of giving your clones a chance at growth is to keep a constant, close eye on them.

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